Assessment tools

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Tool 1C: Key Challenge

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Issue/Challenge: Equity and Validity of Assessment Judgement

Summary:

Experienced teachers (as assessors in the professional experience/practicum period) identify that making judgments about and assessing the performance (according to criteria or graduate standards) of preservice teachers can be a difficult and lonely task. Teachers recognise that this is a process often done in isolation and may have expressed concern when making judgments about their own personal bias or ‘subjectivity’ impacting on their decision making.

Tool Summary: Using Video to Promote Equity and Validity in Assessment Judgment

 

 

video icon Using video or audio technology as a means of ‘capturing’ various elements of professional practice has the potential to assist experienced teachers with respect to strengthening the equity and validity of their assessment judgments. Video is a means of providing evidence of both the contexts and practices of teaching and learning and provides the possibility for the preservice teacher to reflect on and discuss key elements of their practice evident within the video as part of the assessment process. Video can also contribute to formative identification of areas of practice that require further attention and enrich feedback processes.

 

Video technology has been a common means capturing aspects of classroom contexts, student interactions in the teaching and learning process as well as recording the practices of teachers. In times past accessing and utilising appropriate technology has often limited its use in teacher professional learning. However, video technology is developing rapidly in ways that allow both preservice teachers and teachers to easily and unobtrusively record ‘snippets’ of practice. Such devices as Smart phones and flip videos are accessible and simple to use. Video evidence can be captured and discussed in the immediate context of practice and then deleted, avoiding issues associated with privacy and ethics pertinent to recording in school settings. Additionally, if protocols are in place, video material can be easily saved and viewed at a later date as part of both formative and summative assessment processes. Such video material can then be used as the basis of demonstrations of practice, a source of evidence to be reflectively engaged with to progress professional learning or as an artefact to be included in a portfolio as an element to guide assessor judgment. Ease of electronically transferring video material from say a smart phone to an eportfolio facility makes the inclusion of video as a component within a portfolio a simple step. ICT Communicative technologies offer the potential to increasingly employ online links such as Skype and video-conferencing to connect assessors both on and off the placement site and to link effectively to eportfolio and video structures.

 

 

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Assessment Strategy & Process

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Assessment Strategy and Process: Video and ICTs

  • Video material can be used as the basis of demonstrations of practice; a source of evidence to be reflectively engaged with to progress professional learning or as an artefact to be included in a portfolio as an element to guide assessor judgment. Video technology has been a common means to capture aspects of classroom contexts, student interactions in the teaching and learning process as well as recording the practices of teachers.
  • In times past accessing and utilising appropriate technology has often limited video use in teacher professional learning. However, video technology is developing rapidly in ways that allow both PSTs and their educators to easily and unobtrusively record ‘snippets’ of practice.  Devices as Smart phones and flip cameras are accessible and simple to use.
  •  Video evidence can be captured and discussed in the immediate context of practice and then deleted, avoiding issues associated with privacy and ethics pertinent to recording in school settings. Additionally, if protocols are in place, video material can be easily saved and viewed at a later date as part of both formative and summative assessment processes.
  •  Ease of electronically transferring video material from say a smart phone to an e-portfolio facility makes the inclusion of video as a component within a portfolio a simple step
  • Video components possibly within a portfolio structure may be annotated with respect to a selection of Standards and focus areas, serving to provide documentation of the preservice teacher’s understanding of what counts as valid evidence against a particular Standard.
  • Video material can be presented by the preservice teacher to an individual assessor or to a Roundtable panel and discussed as key summative evidence within the assessment process. Video thus has the potential to provide a valuable contribution to assessment decision-making and to guide and support final grading and reporting processes.
  • Video may be a highly defined process guided by specific proformas and communication steps including key questions to be addressed, or be less defined to allow more autonomy and creative input from the preservice teacher.
  • ICT offer the potential to increasingly employ online links such as Skype and video-conferencing to connect assessors both on and off the placement site and to link effectively to e-portfolio and video structures.

 

 

 

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Resources

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Resources: Protocols and Rubrics

  • Appropriate video technology for example smart phone video cameras or flip videos need to be available for equitable access. Programs employing video as a placement requirement would need to ensure all preservice teachers were able to access appropriate technology or its equivalent and not be disadvantaged in this process.
  • Video protocols – guidelines for use, ethical considerations, ownership, storage, privacy considerations pertinent to both university and school guidelines. All protocols understood and shared by the supervising teacher and preservice teacher. Development of proformas for example necessary for parental information and permission may be necessary.
  • Guidelines clarifying points of focus for collecting video material, annotating, reflecting or analytic writing, for example use of Professional Teaching Standards as an analytic framework. Clarification as to how video material is to be employed within both formative and summative assessment steps.
  • A set of explicit guidelines for video activities, possibly linked to Professional Teaching Standards needs to be collaboratively developed and communicated to guide the presentation and discussion by the PST and how video material  is to be included in the assessment processes, for example within a portfolio.

Activity

Read and discuss: Maclean, R & White, S. (2007) Video reflection and the formation of teacher identity in a team of pre-service and experienced teachers, Reflective Practice, Vol 8, No 1, pp. 47-60, Routledge, United Kingdom

Activity

Visit Project evidence and click on Evidence

Scroll down to What evidence should school based assessors look for and complete the activity: Looking for the evidence.

Then discuss the strengths and challenges of using video stimulus recall as a tool for assessing in professional experience.

 

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Standards

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Professional Teaching Standards

All Professional Teaching Standards can be addressed when video technology and its  presentation is a key assessment process. However, selected Standards and focus areas may be identified as relevant and providing a focus for the video at  specific stages. A final presentation by the preservice teacher via a portfolio containing video evidence linked to  articulation of understandings and performance against Professional Teaching Standards iprovides rich evidence to inform the assessment summative judgment.

 Standard 6, Engaging in Professional Learning is particularly apt in terms of the PST focussing on the development of their own professional learning and providing evidence of this development within a portfolio.

 

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